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花式溜冰 單人滑&雙人滑跳躍動作

花式溜冰 單人滑&雙人滑跳躍動作

<h2><br></h2>
                                               
                                               
                                                                                                                                                                                                                        <div id="bodyContent">
<p><b>花式溜冰的跳躍動作</b>,是<font color="dimgray">花式溜冰</font>的主要技術動作之一。在花式溜冰男子單人滑、女子單人滑和雙人滑三個項目的重大比賽中,要取得好的名次,高質量的跳躍動作不可或缺。</p>
<table class="toc" id="toc" summary="目錄">
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<td>
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<h2>目錄</h2></div>
<ul><li class="toclevel-1"><a href="http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E8%8A%B1%E6%A0%B7%E6%BB%91%E5%86%B0%E7%9A%84%E8%B7%B3%E8%B7%83%E5%8A%A8%E4%BD%9C&variant=zh-tw#.E5.9F.BA.E6.9C.AC.E5.88.86.E7.B1.BB"><font color="gray"><span class="tocnumber">1</span> <span class="toctext">基本分類</span></font></a><font color="gray"> </font>
</li><li class="toclevel-1"><a href="http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E8%8A%B1%E6%A0%B7%E6%BB%91%E5%86%B0%E7%9A%84%E8%B7%B3%E8%B7%83%E5%8A%A8%E4%BD%9C&variant=zh-tw#.E5.B8.B8.E8.A7.81.E8.B7.B3.E8.B7.83.E5.8A.A8.E4.BD.9C"><font color="gray"><span class="tocnumber">2</span> <span class="toctext">常見跳躍動作</span></font></a><font color="gray"> </font>
</li><li class="toclevel-1"><a href="http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E8%8A%B1%E6%A0%B7%E6%BB%91%E5%86%B0%E7%9A%84%E8%B7%B3%E8%B7%83%E5%8A%A8%E4%BD%9C&variant=zh-tw#.E8.BF.9E.E8.B7.B3"><font color="gray"><span class="tocnumber">3</span> <span class="toctext">連跳</span></font></a><font color="gray"> </font>
<ul><li class="toclevel-2"><a href="http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E8%8A%B1%E6%A0%B7%E6%BB%91%E5%86%B0%E7%9A%84%E8%B7%B3%E8%B7%83%E5%8A%A8%E4%BD%9C&variant=zh-tw#.E8.81.94.E5.90.88.E8.B7.B3.E8.B7.83"><font color="gray"><span class="tocnumber">3.1</span> <span class="toctext">聯合跳躍</span></font></a><font color="gray"> </font>
</li><li class="toclevel-2"><a href="http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E8%8A%B1%E6%A0%B7%E6%BB%91%E5%86%B0%E7%9A%84%E8%B7%B3%E8%B7%83%E5%8A%A8%E4%BD%9C&variant=zh-tw#.E8.BF.9E.E7.BB.AD.E8.B7.B3.E8.B7.83"><font color="gray"><span class="tocnumber">3.2</span> <span class="toctext">連續跳躍</span></font></a><font color="gray"> </font></li></ul>
</li><li class="toclevel-1"><a href="http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E8%8A%B1%E6%A0%B7%E6%BB%91%E5%86%B0%E7%9A%84%E8%B7%B3%E8%B7%83%E5%8A%A8%E4%BD%9C&variant=zh-tw#.E6.8A.9B.E8.B7.B3"><font color="gray"><span class="tocnumber">4</span> <span class="toctext">拋跳</span></font></a><font color="gray"> </font>
</li><li class="toclevel-1"><a href="http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E8%8A%B1%E6%A0%B7%E6%BB%91%E5%86%B0%E7%9A%84%E8%B7%B3%E8%B7%83%E5%8A%A8%E4%BD%9C&variant=zh-tw#.E5.8F.82.E7.9C.8B"><font color="gray"><span class="tocnumber">5</span> <span class="toctext">參看</span></font></a> </li></ul>
<p class="toclevel-1"> </p></td></tr></tbody></table>
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<p><a id=".E5.9F.BA.E6.9C.AC.E5.88.86.E7.B1.BB" name=".E5.9F.BA.E6.9C.AC.E5.88.86.E7.B1.BB"></a></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline">基本分類</span></h2>
<p>根據起跳方式的不同(起跳足的冰刀用前刃或者後刃、以及用內刃或者外刃),可將常見的標準跳躍動作分為六種,每種難度不同。</p>
<p>由於運動員在跳躍過程中往往有空中轉體動作,因此又可分為一周跳、兩周跳、三周跳和四周跳,周數越多難度越高。目前世界一流的男運動員大多能在一套節目(4分多鍾)內完成一至三個的四周跳,而大部分世界一流的女運動員則能夠完成所有種類的三周跳(除了三周半跳)。</p>
<p>正如人有慣用右手和慣用左手之分一樣,花式溜冰運動員根據個人完成跳躍動作的習慣也分為逆時針旋轉和順時針旋轉兩種類型。大多數花式溜冰運動員是採用逆時針旋轉完成跳躍動作。逆時針旋轉和順時針旋轉並不影響運動員的比賽成績。</p>
<p><a id=".E5.B8.B8.E8.A7.81.E8.B7.B3.E8.B7.83.E5.8A.A8.E4.BD.9C" name=".E5.B8.B8.E8.A7.81.E8.B7.B3.E8.B7.83.E5.8A.A8.E4.BD.9C"></a></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline">常見跳躍動作</span></h2>
<p>根據起跳方式的不同,有以下六種常見的跳躍動作:</p>
<ul><li><font color="blue">後外點冰跳</font>,也稱外點跳,即<span xml:lang="en" lang="en">Toeloop jump</span>,是六種常見跳躍動作中技術難度最低的。
</li><li><font color="#0000ff">後內跳</font>,也稱後內結環跳,即<span xml:lang="en" lang="en">Salchow jump</span>,是六種常見跳躍動作中技術難度第二低的。
</li><li><font color="#0000ff">後外跳</font>,也稱後外結環跳,即<span xml:lang="en" lang="en">Loop jump</span>,是六種常見跳躍動作中技術難度第三低的。
</li><li><font color="#0000ff">後內點冰跳</font>,也稱內點跳,即<span xml:lang="en" lang="en">Flip jump</span>,是六種常見跳躍動作中技術難度第三高的。
</li><li><font color="#0000ff">勾手跳</font>,即<span xml:lang="en" lang="en">Lutz jump</span>,是六種常見跳躍動作中技術難度第二高的。
</li><li><font color="#0000ff">一周半跳</font>,即<span xml:lang="en" lang="en">Axel jump</span>,是六種常見跳躍動作中技術難度最高的。 </li></ul>
<p>這六種跳躍動作的區別如下:</p>
<table class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;">
<tbody>
<tr>
<th rowspan="2">跳躍動作</th>
<th colspan="4">起跳狀態</th>
<th rowspan="2">起跳後轉體方向</th>
<th colspan="4">落冰狀態</th></tr>
<tr>
<td>滑行方向</td>
<td>起跳足</td>
<td>起跳刃</td>
<td>另一足狀態</td>
<td>落冰足</td>
<td>落冰刃</td>
<td>另一足狀態</td>
<td>滑行方向</td></tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan="2"><b><font color="blue">後外點冰跳</font></b></td>
<td rowspan="2">向後</td>
<td>右足</td>
<td rowspan="2"><b>後外</b>刃</td>
<td>左足刀齒<b>點冰</b></td>
<td>逆時針</td>
<td>右足</td>
<td rowspan="2">後外刃</td>
<td>左足冰刀不接觸冰面</td>
<td rowspan="2">向後</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>左足</td>
<td>右足刀齒<b>點冰</b></td>
<td>順時針</td>
<td>左足</td>
<td>右足冰刀不接觸冰面</td></tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan="2"><b><font color="#0000ff">後內跳</font></b></td>
<td rowspan="2">向後</td>
<td>左足</td>
<td rowspan="2"><b>後內</b>刃</td>
<td>右足刀齒<b>不點冰</b></td>
<td>逆時針</td>
<td>右足</td>
<td rowspan="2">後外刃</td>
<td>左足冰刀不接觸冰面</td>
<td rowspan="2">向後</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>右足</td>
<td>左足刀齒<b>不點冰</b></td>
<td>順時針</td>
<td>左足</td>
<td>右足冰刀不接觸冰面</td></tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan="2"><b><font color="#0000ff">後外跳</font></b></td>
<td rowspan="2">向後</td>
<td>右足</td>
<td rowspan="2"><b>後外</b>刃</td>
<td>左足刀齒<b>不點冰</b></td>
<td>逆時針</td>
<td>右足</td>
<td rowspan="2">後外刃</td>
<td>左足冰刀不接觸冰面</td>
<td rowspan="2">向後</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>左足</td>
<td>右足刀齒<b>不點冰</b></td>
<td>順時針</td>
<td>左足</td>
<td>右足冰刀不接觸冰面</td></tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan="2"><b><font color="#0000ff">後內點冰跳</font></b></td>
<td rowspan="2">向後</td>
<td>左足</td>
<td rowspan="2"><b>後內</b>刃</td>
<td>右足刀齒<b>點冰</b></td>
<td>逆時針</td>
<td>右足</td>
<td rowspan="2">後外刃</td>
<td>左足冰刀不接觸冰面</td>
<td rowspan="2">向後</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>右足</td>
<td>左足刀齒<b>點冰</b></td>
<td>順時針</td>
<td>左足</td>
<td>右足冰刀不接觸冰面</td></tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan="2"><b><font color="#0000ff">勾手跳</font></b></td>
<td rowspan="2">向後</td>
<td>左足</td>
<td rowspan="2"><b>後外</b>刃</td>
<td>右足刀齒<b>點冰</b></td>
<td>逆時針</td>
<td>右足</td>
<td rowspan="2">後外刃</td>
<td>左足冰刀不接觸冰面</td>
<td rowspan="2">向後</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>右足</td>
<td>左足刀齒<b>點冰</b></td>
<td>順時針</td>
<td>左足</td>
<td>右足冰刀不接觸冰面</td></tr>
<tr>
<td rowspan="2"><b><font color="#0000ff">一周半跳</font></b></td>
<td rowspan="2">向前</td>
<td>左足</td>
<td rowspan="2"><b>前外</b>刃</td>
<td>右足刀齒<b>不點冰</b></td>
<td>逆時針</td>
<td>右足</td>
<td rowspan="2">後外刃</td>
<td>左足冰刀不接觸冰面</td>
<td rowspan="2">向後</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>右足</td>
<td>左足刀齒<b>不點冰</b></td>
<td>順時針</td>
<td>左足</td>
<td>右足冰刀不接觸冰面</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p>根據<font color="#0000ff">國際滑冰聯盟</font>(ISU)於2004年通過的《2004年版國際滑冰聯盟評分系統》,後外點冰跳的基礎分值見下表:</p>
<table class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;">
<tbody>
<tr>
<th>中文名稱</th>
<th>英文全稱</th>
<th>英文縮寫</th>
<th>空中旋轉</th>
<th>基礎分值</th>
<th>備註</th></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外點冰一周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">single Toeloop jump</span></td>
<td>1T</td>
<td>360度</td>
<td>0.4</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內一周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">single Salchow jump</span></td>
<td>1S</td>
<td>360度</td>
<td>0.4</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外一周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">single Loop jump</span></td>
<td>1Lo</td>
<td>360度</td>
<td>0.5</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內點冰一周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">single Flip jump</span></td>
<td>1F</td>
<td>360度</td>
<td>0.5</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>勾手一周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">single Lutz jump</span></td>
<td>1Lz</td>
<td>360度</td>
<td>0.6</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>一周半跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">single Axel jump</span></td>
<td>1A</td>
<td>540度</td>
<td>0.8</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外點冰兩周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">double Toeloop jump</span></td>
<td>2T</td>
<td>720度</td>
<td>1.3</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內兩周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">double Salchow jump</span></td>
<td>2S</td>
<td>720度</td>
<td>1.3</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外兩周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">double Loop jump</span></td>
<td>2Lo</td>
<td>720度</td>
<td>1.5</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內點冰兩周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">double Flip jump</span></td>
<td>2F</td>
<td>720度</td>
<td>1.7</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>勾手兩周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">double Lutz jump</span></td>
<td>2Lz</td>
<td>720度</td>
<td>1.9</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>兩周半跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">double Axel jump</span></td>
<td>2A</td>
<td>900度</td>
<td>3.3</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外點冰三周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">triple Toeloop jump</span></td>
<td>3T</td>
<td>1080度</td>
<td>4.0</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內三周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">triple Salchow jump</span></td>
<td>3S</td>
<td>1080度</td>
<td>4.5</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外三周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">triple Loop jump</span></td>
<td>3Lo</td>
<td>1080度</td>
<td>5.0</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內點冰三周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">triple Flip jump</span></td>
<td>3F</td>
<td>1080度</td>
<td>5.5</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>勾手三周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">triple Lutz jump</span></td>
<td>3Lz</td>
<td>1080度</td>
<td>6.0</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>三周半跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">triple Axel jump</span></td>
<td>3A</td>
<td>1260度</td>
<td>7.5</td>
<td>目前只有少數男運動員和極少數女運動員<br>在正式比賽中完成過</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外點冰四周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">quadruple Toeloop jump</span></td>
<td>4T</td>
<td>1440度</td>
<td>9.0</td>
<td>目前只有少數男運動員<br>在正式比賽中完成過</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內四周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">quadruple Salchow jump</span></td>
<td>4S</td>
<td>1440度</td>
<td>9.5</td>
<td>目前只有極少數男運動員和一位女運動員<br>在正式比賽中完成過</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外四周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">quadruple Loop jump</span></td>
<td>4Lo</td>
<td>1440度</td>
<td>10.0</td>
<td>目前沒有人能在正式比賽中完成</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內點冰四周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">quadruple Flip jump</span></td>
<td>4F</td>
<td>1440度</td>
<td>10.5</td>
<td>目前沒有人能在正式比賽中完成</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>勾手四周跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">quadruple Lutz jump</span></td>
<td>4Lz</td>
<td>1440度</td>
<td>11.0</td>
<td>目前沒有人能在正式比賽中完成</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>四周半跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">quadruple Axel jump</span></td>
<td>4A</td>
<td>1620度</td>
<td>13.0</td>
<td>目前沒有人能在正式比賽中完成</td></tr></tbody></table>
<p><a id=".E8.BF.9E.E8.B7.B3" name=".E8.BF.9E.E8.B7.B3"></a></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline">連跳</span></h2>
<p>一些較高水平的運動員,能夠在很短的時間內連續完成兩個甚至更多的跳躍動作,由此形成聯合跳躍和連續跳躍兩種連跳方式。</p>
<p><a id=".E8.81.94.E5.90.88.E8.B7.B3.E8.B7.83" name=".E8.81.94.E5.90.88.E8.B7.B3.E8.B7.83"></a></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline">聯合跳躍(組合跳)</span></h3>
<p><b>聯合跳躍</b>,即<span xml:lang="en" lang="en">jump combination</span>,是由
時間上緊密相連的兩個或三個跳躍組成。第一個跳躍的落冰足必須是第二個跳躍的起跳足,如果有第三個跳躍,則第二個跳躍的落冰足也必須是第三個跳躍的起跳
足。一個聯合跳躍的前後兩跳之間,不允許有任何步法、轉體和換刃動作,否則就是連續跳躍而非聯合跳躍。但有個特例,即如果前後兩跳之間,一足的3字轉體不
觸及冰面,另一足保持動作,也被認為是一個聯合跳躍(包含了一個錯誤);否則,如果轉體時另一足觸及了冰面,就變成了一個連續跳躍。另外,如果其中包含了
不屬於六種常見跳躍動作的其它跳躍動作(如<font color="#0000ff">後外半周跳</font>),則被認為是一個連續跳躍而不是聯合跳躍。聯合跳躍有多種簡寫方式,例如<font color="#0000ff">勾手三周跳</font>接<font color="blue">後外點冰兩周跳</font>的聯合跳躍,常簡寫為3 Lutz + 2 Toeloop、3 Lutz + 2 Toe或3Lz + 2T,中間的「+」可以換成「/」或「-」。</p>
<p>目前國際滑冰聯盟規定,男子單人滑和女子單人滑的短節目比賽中,必須有一個由兩個跳躍組成的聯合跳躍。</p>
<p>聯合跳躍是花式溜冰比賽中最常見的雙刃劍之一。由於聯合跳躍難度較大,很多運動員在比賽時往往出現失誤甚至跌倒,從而直接影響比賽成績。但一旦運動
員漂亮的完成了高難度的聯合跳躍,又能明顯提升比賽成績。因此世界一流的運動員往往都會在力所能及的範圍內練習高難度的聯合跳躍。</p>
<p><a id=".E8.BF.9E.E7.BB.AD.E8.B7.B3.E8.B7.83" name=".E8.BF.9E.E7.BB.AD.E8.B7.B3.E8.B7.83"></a></p>
<h3><span class="mw-headline">連續跳躍</span></h3>
<p><b>連續跳躍</b>,即<span xml:lang="en" lang="en">jump sequence</span>,是由任意數量的跳躍和任意數量的單足跳旋轉,以及每個動作後的轉體動作組成。在任何單足跳和(或)任何跳躍之間不能有超過一周的旋轉。一個連續跳躍應當是持續的和有節奏的,且不允許有交叉步。連續跳躍也有多種簡寫方式,例如<font color="blue">後外點</font><font color="blue">冰三周跳</font>接<font color="#0000ff">後內三周跳</font>的連續跳躍,常簡寫為3 Toeloop + 3 Salchow + SEQ或3T + 3S + SEQ。中間的「+」可以換成「/」或「-」(「SEQ」來自英語「sequence」)。</p>
<p>一般情況下,連續跳躍並不是國際滑冰聯盟規定必做的跳躍動作。但不少運動員在試圖完成高難度的聯合跳躍時出現失誤(例如第一跳落冰後失去平衡,不得不順勢做一個雙足觸冰的轉體動作以避免跌倒,然後再接第二跳),往往只能按照連續跳躍來定級評分。</p>
<p><a id=".E6.8A.9B.E8.B7.B3" name=".E6.8A.9B.E8.B7.B3"></a></p>
<h2><span class="mw-headline">拋跳</span></h2>
<p><b>拋跳</b>,即<span xml:lang="en" lang="en">throw jump</span>,是雙人滑特有的動作。一般情況下,是女運動員借助男伴拋出的力量完成一個標準的跳躍動作。出於多種原因,目前國際滑冰聯盟只允許男運動員拋出女伴,不允許女運動員拋出男伴。</p>
<p>根據國際滑冰聯盟於2008年通過的《2008-2009年版國際滑冰聯盟評分系統》,後外點冰跳的基礎分值見下表:</p>
<table class="wikitable" style="text-align: center;">
<tbody>
<tr>
<th>中文名稱</th>
<th>英文全稱</th>
<th>英文縮寫</th>
<th>空中旋轉</th>
<th>基礎分值</th>
<th>備註</th></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外點冰一周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">single Toeloop throw jump</span></td>
<td>1TTh</td>
<td>360度</td>
<td>1.2</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內一周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">single Salchow throw jump</span></td>
<td>1STh</td>
<td>360度</td>
<td>1.2</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外一周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">single Loop throw jump</span></td>
<td>1LoTh</td>
<td>360度</td>
<td>1.5</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內點冰一周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">single Flip throw jump</span></td>
<td>1FTh</td>
<td>360度</td>
<td>1.5</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>勾手一周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">single Lutz throw jump</span></td>
<td>1LzTh</td>
<td>360度</td>
<td>1.5</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>一周半拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">single Axel throw jump</span></td>
<td>1ATh</td>
<td>540度</td>
<td>2.0</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外點冰兩周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">double Toeloop throw jump</span></td>
<td>2TTh</td>
<td>720度</td>
<td>2.5</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內兩周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">double Salchow throw jump</span></td>
<td>2STh</td>
<td>720度</td>
<td>2.5</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外兩周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">double Loop throw jump</span></td>
<td>2LoTh</td>
<td>720度</td>
<td>3.0</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內點冰兩周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">double Flip throw jump</span></td>
<td>2FTh</td>
<td>720度</td>
<td>3.0</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>勾手兩周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">double Lutz throw jump</span></td>
<td>2LzTh</td>
<td>720度</td>
<td>3.0</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>兩周半拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">double Axel throw jump</span></td>
<td>2ATh</td>
<td>900度</td>
<td>4.0</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外點冰三周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">triple Toeloop throw jump</span></td>
<td>3TTh</td>
<td>1080度</td>
<td>4.5</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內三周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">triple Salchow throw jump</span></td>
<td>3STh</td>
<td>1080度</td>
<td>4.5</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外三周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">triple Loop throw jump</span></td>
<td>3LoTh</td>
<td>1080度</td>
<td>5.0</td>
<td><br></td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內點冰三周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">triple Flip throw jump</span></td>
<td>3FTh</td>
<td>1080度</td>
<td>5.5</td>
<td>目前只有少數選手<br>在正式比賽中完成過</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>勾手三周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">triple Lutz throw jump</span></td>
<td>3LzTh</td>
<td>1080度</td>
<td>5.5</td>
<td>目前只有極少數選手<br>在正式比賽中完成過</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>三周半拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">triple Axel throw jump</span></td>
<td>3ATh</td>
<td>1260度</td>
<td>7.5</td>
<td>目前只有一對選手<br>在正式比賽中完成過</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外點冰四周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">quadruple Toeloop throw jump</span></td>
<td>4TTh</td>
<td>1440度</td>
<td>8.0</td>
<td>目前沒有人能在正式比賽中完成</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內四周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">quadruple Salchow throw jump</span></td>
<td>4STh</td>
<td>1440度</td>
<td>8.0</td>
<td>目前只有極少數選手<br>在正式比賽中完成過</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後外四周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">quadruple Loop throw jump</span></td>
<td>4LoTh</td>
<td>1440度</td>
<td>8.5</td>
<td>目前沒有人能在正式比賽中完成</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>後內點冰四周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">quadruple Flip throw jump</span></td>
<td>4FTh</td>
<td>1440度</td>
<td>9.0</td>
<td>目前沒有人能在正式比賽中完成</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>勾手四周拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">quadruple Lutz throw jump</span></td>
<td>4LzTh</td>
<td>1440度</td>
<td>9.0</td>
<td>目前沒有人能在正式比賽中完成</td></tr>
<tr>
<td>四周半拋跳</td>
<td><span xml:lang="en" lang="en">quadruple Axel throw jump</span></td>
<td>4ATh</td>
<td>1620度</td>
<td>無分值</td>
<td>目前沒有人能在正式比賽中完成;<br>難度過高,可能對女伴造成傷害</td></tr></tbody></table>
<h2><span class="mw-headline"></span> </h2>
<h2><span class="mw-headline">Wikipedia contributors, "花式溜冰," <i>Wikipedia, 自由的百科全書,</i> <a class="external free" title="http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E8%8A%B1%E6%A0%B7%E6%BB%91%E5%86%B0&oldid=8403294" href="http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E8%8A%B1%E6%A0%B7%E6%BB%91%E5%86%B0&oldid=8403294" rel="nofollow"><font color="blue">http://zh.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%E8%8A%B1%E6%A0%B7%E6%BB%91%E5%86%B0&oldid=8403294</font></a> (accessed 2月 16, 2009).</span></h2></div>

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超專業!拍拍手!<br>
我啊,只會跳華爾茲跟TOE LOOP 還有很爛的flip <br>
不過你那個連續跳躍的藍色分行是怎麼弄的?? <br>

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有影片對照嗎@@
分不清楚Toeloop 跟loop的差別=0=

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<H4><A name=6.2.3><FONT color=#000000>Toe-loop</FONT></A></H4>A toe-loop is a toe-assisted jump done from a RBO edge (for CCW jumpers)- usually after a RFI 3-turn. The free (left) leg is extended far behind and the toepick is planted on the circle behind the direction of travel and used as a pole vault. The skater rises, does one rotation in the air and lands on a RBO edge.
<P>When you put your pick in, put it in BEHIND you; make sure that your free leg does not cross behind the skating leg before picking. Also, make sure that both your torso and free leg are facing backwards to the direction of travel as you pick. If you let your shoulders turn around before you pick or turn out your free leg (so that your toepick is facing forwards as you pick) you will do what is known as a TOE-WALTZ. Once you learn this "cheat" it is hard to undo and it will make it harder to achieve a double toe-loop further along the road.</P>
<P>If you are having trouble getting up the nerve to actually jump this jump, try the following: do a RFI 3-turn, put your pick in the ice far behind you, but don't jump, instead, use the pick to pivot around on the RBO edge about one quarter of a turn; then push off the pick and do another RFI 3 turn, pivot around the pick again, etc...This is basically a series of "toe-assisted" RBO threes. One of these times, though, when you put in the pick, don't to the 3 -- jump instead. The series of 3s will get you used to how much rotation you need, and will serve as a stepping stone. for the jump.</P>
<P>Here are a few tips to watch for:</P>
<UL>
<LI class=par>Make sure the check is strong. When you put your pick in, your left arm should be well forward, and you should be sighting down the left arm toward your hand.The right arm is slightly behind you and off to the side
<P></P>
<LI class=par>Make sure that you point the toe-pick and drive the top picks into the ice. This will not only make the take-off more secure, but it will make it harder to turn out the picking foot.
<P></P>
<LI class=par>Although the toe-loop is nominally a full rotation jump, in the practice you will be doing at least a quarter to a half rotation on the ice. This is not bad technique, as long as your shoulders and picking leg turn together as a unit and face the same direction throughout the take-off. </LI></UL>
<H4><A name=6.2.4><FONT color=#000000>Loop jump</FONT></A></H4>
<P>The loop jump is an "edge" jump, starting from a RBO edge and finishing on an RBO edge after one rotation.</P>
<P>Here is an exercise that can help you get a feeling for what the jump feels like. Start either from backward CCW crossovers or a RFI 3 turn (the 3 turn is easier for most people). Either way, the position for entering the jump is a RBO edge, left (free) leg in front, left arm strongly checked in front, right arm strongly checked behind, head facing forward.</P>
<P>For the exercise, scoop a pot of gold up from the ice with your right hand as you rotate crossing the free leg across the ankle. Do a single rotation backspin on the ice and check out with the free leg in back.</P>
<P>The jump is the same, only at the same time that you scoop the pot of gold up off the ice with the right hand, DEEPLY bend the right knee. Just before you'd pop into your backspin for the exercise, pop into the air instead.</P>
<P>Things to remember are:</P>
<UL>
<LI class=par>Make sure that you have a strong RBO edge and a strong check. The "launch" power comes from pushing up off of a strong edge. The rotation comes from releasing the check.
<LI class=par>On the entry, avoid having your weight rock forward.
<LI class=par>Keep the free leg IN FRONT of the skating leg. It's very easy, especially just at the moment of jump, to let it wander off sideways, out of the circle.
<LI class=par>Keep your head looking inside the circle until just before you jump. This will keep you from leaning outside the circle.
<LI class=par>Remember to jump through the entire foot, pointing the toe so that the pick is the last thing to leave the ice </LI></UL>

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